Ford Explorer: Handles, Locks, Latches and Entry Systems / Description and Operation - Handles, Locks, Latches and Entry Systems - System Operation and Component Description

Ford Explorer 2020-2022 Service Manual / Body and Paint / Body and Paint / Handles, Locks, Latches and Entry Systems / Description and Operation - Handles, Locks, Latches and Entry Systems - System Operation and Component Description

System Operation

System Diagram


Item Description
1 Exterior Door Handles
2 Antenna
3 BCM
4 Liftgate Release Switch
5 Passive Key (if equipped) (except police vehicles)
6 RTM
7 Keyless Entry Keypad
8 GWM
9 RGTM
10 Liftgate Latch
11 Turn Signals
12 Horn
13 IPC
14 IKT/Keyfob (if equipped) (except police vehicles)
15 With Passive Entry
16 Left Rear Door Latch
17 Right Rear Door Latch
18 Left Front Door Latch
19 Right Front Door Latch
20 Liftgate Release Enable Switch
21 DDM
22 PDM
23 Door Lock Control Switch
24 Door Lock Control Switch
25 Keyless Entry Rear Antenna
26 Power Liftgate
27 Police Only
28 Without Passive Entry or Without Police
29 Fuel Filler Door Release Solenoid
30 PCM
31 Hybrid Vehicles
32 Headlamp Switch
33 Fuel Door Release Switch
34 Fuel Filler Door Ajar Switch
35 Fuel Filler Door Lock
36 Non-Hybrid Vehicles

Network Message Chart

  BCM Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Vehicle speed   PCM The BCM uses the vehicle speed data for the autolock and auto-unlock features (if equipped)
Door lock switch status DDM/ PDM Provides the BCM with lock/unlock requests based on the input from the door lock control switch.

  IPC Module Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Message center feature configuration   IPC Provides the BCM configuration settings selected by the driver of the vehicle, such as autolock and auto-unlock settings (if equipped).

Power Door Locks

The BCM controls the door locks using field-effect transitors (FET)'s (driver door unlock/passenger doors unlock/all doors lock). When the relays are not energized, ground is provided on both circuits to the lock motors within the latches. When an unlock relay energizes, voltage is provided to one side of the lock motor to unlock the door(s). When an unlock relay energizes, voltage is provided to one side of the lock motor to unlock the door(s). When the lock relay energizes, the polarity is reversed and the motors lock the doors.

The DDM and PDM send voltage signals to the door lock control switches. When a door lock control switch is pressed, the voltage signal is routed to ground, indicating a request to lock/unlock the doors. When the DDM or PDM detects a lock or unlock request, a message is sent over the CAN to the BCM to lock or unlock the doors.

Based on input from the door lock control switches, the keyless entry keypad (if equipped), the passive entry system (if equipped) and the RKE transmitter (if equipped), the BCM unlocks the driver door, unlocks all the doors or locks all the doors.

Switch Inhibit Feature

The switch inhibit feature prevents unauthorized access to the vehicle from the door lock control switches or the liftgate release switch. The BCM ignores the input from both door lock control switches and the interior liftgate release switch 20 seconds after the vehicle is electronically locked. If any of these switches are activated while they are inhibited, a chime sounds and a message displays in the message center to indicate the switches are inhibited. The BCM enables the function of these switches when the vehicle is electronically unlocked by another feature.

This feature can be configured on/off through the message center.

Power Door Locking Feedback

The exterior lamps and horn provide visual and audible feedback when unlocking and locking the doors under certain circumstances. Refer to the following table:


NOTE: The mislock feature (if equipped) sounds the horn twice (no turn signal flash) if the hood, liftgate or any door is ajar when the lock button is pressed on a valid programmed RKE transmitter (if equipped). This feature can be configured on/off through the message center.


Action Status of Door(s) Status of Liftgate Status of Hood Visual/Audible Feedback
Press the lock button on the door lock control switch Open Closed Closed A short flash of the turn signals after all the doors are closed.
Press 7/8 and 9/0 on the keyless entry keypad Closed Closed Closed A short flash of the turn signals.
Press the unlock button on a RKE transmitter Closed Closed Closed A long flash of the turn signals.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter Closed Closed Closed A short flash of the turn signals.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter Open Closed Closed A short flash of the turn signals after all the doors are closed.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter Closed Open Closed A short flash of the turn signals after the liftgate is closed.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter Closed Closed Open A short flash of the turn signals after the hood is closed.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter twice within 3 seconds Closed Closed Closed The horn chirps once and the turn signals flash twice.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter twice within 3 seconds Open Closed Closed The horn immediately chirps and after all the doors are closed, the turn signals flash twice.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter twice within 3 seconds (if equipped) Closed Open Closed The horn immediately chirps twice and after the liftgate is closed, the turn signals flash twice.
Press the lock button on a RKE transmitter twice within 3 seconds (if equipped) Closed Closed Open The horn immediately chirps twice and after the hood is closed, the turn signals flash twice.

There is also feedback provided by the vehicle to the key for the remote start feature. For additional information regarding the remote start feedback, refer to the Owner's Literature.

Liftgate Latch Release (except police vehicles)

The liftgate latch can be released when the vehicle is in PARK by:

  • electronically unlocking the doors and then pressing the exterior liftgate release switch.
  • pressing the liftgate button on a valid programmed IKT (if equipped) or passive key (if equipped) and then pressing the exterior liftgate release switch within 45 seconds.

The BCM sends a voltage signal to the liftgate release switch. When the liftgate release button is pressed, the voltage signal is routed to ground, indicating a request to release the liftgate latch. The BCM momentarily provides voltage to the liftgate latch to actuate the release motor.

The liftgate latch can also be released using the passive entry feature. Refer to Liftgate Passive Entry in this section.

For power liftgate information,
Refer to: Body Closures - System Operation and Component Description (501-03 Body Closures, Description and Operation).

Liftgate Latch Release (police vehicles)

The liftgate latch can be released using the liftgate lock cylinder or the exterior liftgate release switch.

The liftgate lock cylinder manually releases the liftgate latch when a correctly cut key is used to rotate the lock cylinder. A cable attached between the liftgate lock cylinder and the liftgate latch mechanically releases the liftgate latch when the liftgate lock cylinder is utilized to open the liftgate.

The BCM sends a voltage signal to the liftgate release enable switch (located in the overhead console) and exterior liftgate release switch. To release the liftgate latch:

Method 1

  • place the ignition in the RUN mode.
  • press the liftgate latch release enable button located on the overhead console (a telltale displays in the IPC).
  • within 45 seconds of pressing the liftgate latch release enable switch, press the liftgate release switch located on the liftgate.

Method 2

  • if equipped, press the liftgate button located on the RKE transmitter.
  • within 45 seconds of pressing the RKE transmitter button (if equipped), press the liftgate release switch located on the liftgate.

The BCM momentarily provides voltage to the liftgate latch to actuate the release motor.

If the liftgate release switch is not activated within 45 seconds of pressing the liftgate latch release enable switch or the RKE transmitter button (if equipped), the telltale turns off and the liftgate latch does not release using the liftgate release switch. A subsequent press of the liftgate latch release switch or the RKE transmitter button (if equipped) is required to open the liftgate using the liftgate release switch.

Keyless Entry Keypad (if equipped)

The keyless entry keypad is integrated into the front door window molding. The BCM sends voltage signals from the battery to the keyless entry keypad. When an individual keypad button is touched, an individual or combination of the input circuits is on the keypad LIN circuit. Based on these inputs, the BCM determines which button is touched. When a valid code is received, the BCM locks/unlocks the doors.

When a keypad button is touched, the buttons illuminate. The keypad illumination turns off after 5 seconds have elapsed since the last button press. The keypad also illuminates any time the illuminated entry feature is active.

The keyless entry keypad can be used to:

  • unlock the driver door.
  • unlock all the doors.
  • lock all the doors (except when the driver door is open).
  • program/erase up to 5 user codes.

Locking the Doors with the Keyless Entry Keypad

It is not necessary to enter the factory set or personal code prior to locking all doors. To lock all doors, touch and hold the 7/8 and 9/0 buttons at the same time for approximately 0.5 second. The locking function is disabled when the driver door is open.

Unlocking the Doors with the Keyless Entry Keypad

NOTE: Vehicles equipped with passive entry come from the factory set with the 2-stage unlock feature disabled (all doors unlock when the factory keycode is entered).

To unlock the driver door, enter either the factory set code or a personal code (each digit must be pressed within 5 seconds of the prior digit). The illuminated entry feature activates unless disabled.

If the 2-stage unlock is enabled, enter the factory set code or a personal code (driver door unlocks) and then touch the 3/4 button within 5 seconds to unlock all doors. This feature can be changed to a 1-stage unlock through the message center.

Anti-Scan Feature

To provide added security, the keypad is disabled for 1 minute after wrong entry code being entered seven times. The keypad flashes during this 1 minute mode with all functionality disabled except for 7/8 and 9/0 still being allowed to lock the vehicle.

Anti-scan turns off after 1 minute of keypad inactivity, the unlock button is pressed on a RKE transmitter (if equipped), a passive entry feature is used, or the ignition is turned on.

Factory Keycode Retrieval

The factory keycode for the keyless entry keypad can be retrieved from a label on the BCM, a wallet card in the Owner's Literature, using a diagnostic scan tool, or by using 2 programmed keys.

To retrieve the factory keycode using 2 programmed keys, carry out the following steps within 10 seconds:

  • Place the first programmed key into the ignition lock cylinder (IKT (if equipped) or the backup starting location (passive key) (if equipped) and turn the ignition on.
  • Turn the ignition off and remove the first programmed key.
  • Place the second programmed key into the ignition lock cylinder (IKT (if equipped) or the backup starting location (passive key) (if equipped) and turn the ignition on.

NOTE: Warning messages display in the message center prior to the keycode being displayed.

The factory keycode displays momentarily in the message center.

RKE (if equipped)

The RKE feature is controlled by the BCM. When a button is pressed, the Transmitter Identification Code TIC and RKE command is received by the RTM. The RTM interprets the information and sends a message to the BCM over a LIN circuit and, when the network is awake, over the CAN. If the BCM detects a programmed key, it carries out the command by controlling the door locks, releasing the liftgate latch (or sending a message to the RGTM to open the liftgate) or activating the horn or turn signals as required.

The RKE system can be used to:

  • unlock the driver door.
  • unlock all doors.
  • lock all doors.
  • unlock the liftgate latch (manual liftgate) or open the liftgate (power liftgate) (liftgate release button must be pressed twice within 3 seconds).
  • arm/disarm the perimeter alarm.
  • activate/deactivate the panic alarm.
  • global close the windows (press and hold the lock button for 2 seconds) (if equipped).
  • remotely start the vehicle (if equipped).
  • configure the staged lock programming (2-stage unlock or global unlock).

The RKE transmitters have a normal operating range of 30 m (98 ft) in an open air, no obstruction environment.

The RKE transmitters and the BCM also utilize a rolling code to prevent the code from being captured by a code grabber. The system advances the counter in the RKE transmitter and the BCM every time a RKE transmitter button is pressed.

The message center displays Key Battery Low Replace Soon when the battery in the passive key (if equipped) needs to be replaced.

RKE Transmitter Unlock (if equipped)

The RKE provides a staged process for unlocking the doors. Upon receipt of the first request for unlocking the doors, the RKE feature unlocks only the driver door. If another unlock request is received within 3 seconds of the first, all the doors are unlocked. This feature can be disabled so that all the doors unlock on the first press of the unlock button (global unlock) through the message center.

Vehicles come from the factory set with the 2-stage unlock feature disabled (single press unlocks all doors).

RKE Transmitter Lock (if equipped)

The RKE requests all of the doors lock when the lock button is pressed.

RKE Transmitter Liftgate Latch Unlock (manual liftgate) (if equipped)

The RKE transmitter provides a liftgate latch unlock function. To release the liftgate latch, press the liftgate button twice within 3 seconds and the liftgate release switch in the liftgate within 45 seconds.

RKE Transmitter Liftgate Latch Unlock (manual liftgate) (police vehicles) (if equipped)

If equipped, the red panic alarm button is replaced with a liftgate button. When this button is pressed, a 45 second timer starts. Press the liftgate release switch on the liftgate within 45 seconds to release the liftgate latch.

RKE Transmitter Liftgate Power Open (power liftgate) (if equipped)

The RKE transmitter provides a liftgate power open function. To open the power liftgate, press the liftgate button twice within 3 seconds.

Panic Alarm (if equipped)

The panic alarm feature provides audible and visual alarms which are evident from the exterior of the vehicle. When the panic alarm button is initially pressed, the panic alarm feature requests the turn signals flash and the horn sounds for up to 3 minutes or until deactivation. The flashing of the outputs occurs simultaneously.

The panic alarm can only be activated when the ignition is off. This feature is disabled at all other times. Deactivation of an active panic alarm is accomplished when:

  • a second press of the RKE transmitter (if equipped) panic button is detected.
  • the ignition status changes from off.
  • a period of 2 minutes and 45 seconds have elapsed since the initial activation.

Remote Start (if equipped)

The factory-installed remote start allows the vehicle to be remotely started from outside the vehicle. There is a 2- way communication between the passive key and the vehicle to provide the remote start status of the vehicle. The passive key contains a green and a red LED to indicate the remote start status.

  LED Status
Blinking green Waiting for status update from vehicle
Blinking red Remote start/stop failed
Solid green Remote start or extension successful
Solid red Remote stop successful (engine off)

To remotely start the vehicle, press the lock button once and the remote start button twice within 3 seconds of each other. The vehicle should remotely start and the LED on the passive key should be lit solid green.

The vehicle does not remote start if any of the following conditions are present:

  • The remote start enable/diable feature is in the Sync screen.
  • The hood is not closed.
  • The vehicle is not in PARK.
  • A powertrain system DTC is present, illuminating the service engine soon indicator.
  • The ignition is on.
  • The alarm system is triggered.
  • The vehicle battery voltage is low.

For additional information regarding the remote start system, refer to the Owner's Literature.

Autolock (if equipped)

The autolock feature locks all of the doors after all of the following have occurred:

  • All the doors are closed.
  • The ignition is on.
  • The vehicle is shifted into any gear to put the vehicle in motion.
  • The vehicle attains a speed greater than 20 km/h (12.4 mph).

The autolock feature activates again during the same ignition cycle when all of the following have occurred:

  • The vehicle speed is reduced to less than 15 km/h (9.3 mph).
  • A door is opened and then closed.
  • The vehicle attains a speed greater than 20 km/h (12.4 mph).

Auto-Unlock (if equipped)

NOTE: The doors do not auto-unlock (if equipped) if the vehicle has been electronically locked before the driver door is unlocked.

The auto-unlock feature unlocks all of the doors when all of the following conditions have been met:

  • All the doors are closed and locked.
  • The ignition was on.
  • The vehicle was shifted out of park and a speed greater than 20 km/h (12.4 mph) was achieved.
  • The vehicle has come to a stop.
  • The ignition transitions to accessory or off and, within 10 minutes, the driver door is opened.

The auto-unlock feature can be enabled/disabled through the message center.

Smart Unlock (without push button start)

The smart unlock feature prevents the doors from electronically locking with the key in the ignition lock cylinder. When the BCM receives a lock command from a door lock control switch and the key is detected in the ignition lock cylinder with one of the front doors open, the BCM commands the doors to unlock.

To override the smart unlock feature and intentionally lock the doors with the key in the ignition lock cylinder, close all doors and lock the vehicle by pressing the lock button on another valid programmed IKT, or with mechanical key using the driver door lock cylinder.

Smart Unlock (with push button start)

The smart unlock feature prevents the vehicle from electronically locking when a passive key is left inside the vehicle. When the doors are electronically locked while a door is ajar and then closed, the interior of the vehicle is scanned for a passive key. If a valid programmed passive key is detected inside the vehicle, the BCM unlocks the doors and chirps the horn twice.

The smart unlock feature also operates to prevent locking a passive key (if equipped) inside the luggage compartment area. When the liftgate is closed, the interior of the vehicle is scanned for a passive key (if equipped). If a passive key (if equipped) is detected inside the luggage compartment area when the liftgate is closed, the BCM releases the liftgate latch and chirps the horn twice.

To override the smart unlock feature, lock the doors using the keyless entry keypad, the door lock cylinder or another programmed passive key (if equipped).

Fuel Filler Door Release (if equipped - hybrid vehicles)

The PCM sends a voltage signal to the fuel filler door release switch located on the headlamp switch. When the button is pressed, the signal is routed to a return circuit, indicating a request to release the fuel filler door latch.

When the PCM detects the fuel filler door release switch is pressed, it checks the fuel tank for excessive fuel vapor pressure. If excess fuel tank vapor pressure is detected, the PCM activates a pump to remove the excess pressure.

When the PCM detects the excess pressure is removed, it provides voltage and ground to the fuel filler door release solenoid, releasing the fuel filler door latch. The process to release the fuel filler door can take as long as 15 seconds.

In the event the electronic fuel filler door release system fails, the fuel filler door latch can be released manually using the manual fuel filler door release lever.

Passive Entry (if equipped)

The passive entry feature unlocks or locks the doors or opens the liftgate without having to use a mechanical key blade or the RKE transmitter feature.

When the BCM detects a lock or unlock sensor is touched on an exterior door handle, or the exterior liftgate release button is pressed, it activates the low frequency antenna in the corresponding exterior door handle or inside the luggage compartment area. The low frequency antenna sends out a signal to activate the passive key (if equipped). The passive key then responds by sending a high frequency signal back to the RTM. The RTM interprets the high frequency signal from the passive key and sends the information to the BCM. If the BCM detects a valid programmed passive key (if equipped), the BCM unlocks the driver door, unlocks or locks all 4 doors, releases the liftgate latch (manual liftgate) or sends a command to the RGTM to power open the liftgate (power liftgate).

Door Passive Entry

With a programmed passive key within 1 m (3.28 ft) outside a door, touch the lock or unlock sensor on the exterior door handle. The doors lock or unlock depending upon which sensor was touched on the handle. The unlock button is located on the inside of the handle and the lock button is located on the outside top face of the handle.

The driver front door passive entry feature either unlocks the driver door (if 2-stage unlock is enabled) or all four doors (if 2-stage unlock is disabled). The passive entry feature always locks all four doors when the lock button is touched.

The passenger front door passive entry feature always locks or unlocks all four doors.

Liftgate Passive Entry

With a programmed passive key within 1 m (3.28 ft) outside the liftgate, press the exterior liftgate release button on the rear of the vehicle to release the liftgate latch (manual liftgate) or power open the liftgate (power liftgate).

For information regarding the power liftgate hands free feature,
Refer to: Body Closures - System Operation and Component Description (501-03 Body Closures, Description and Operation).

Component Description

Door Lock Control Switches

The door lock control switches are single pole, double throw switches. The DDM and PDM provide the voltage signals to the door lock control switch for the lock and unlock requests. When a switch is pressed to lock or unlock, the corresponding input circuit is routed to ground, indicating a request to lock or unlock the doors.

Door Latches

The door latches are sealed units and contain the door lock actuator and the door ajar switch. The door lock actuators operate in 2 directions, depending on the polarity of the voltage. The door latches can be lubricated, if needed.

Liftgate Release Switch

The liftgate release switch is a momentary contact switch that supplies a ground signal to the BCM and, if equipped, the RGTM. When the liftgate release switch is pressed, the signal is routed to ground indicating a request to the BCM and the RGTM to release the liftgate latch or power open the liftgate.

Liftgate Latch

The liftgate latch contains the release actuator and the ajar switch. The BCM provides voltage to the actuator to unlatch the liftgate from the striker.

Keyless Entry Keypad (if equipped)

The keyless entry keypad is a touch-sensitive capacitive sensor integrated into the front door window molding. When a finger touches the keypad, it changes the capacitance of the sensor in the area of the finger touch. The keypad determines which area is touched and a signal is sent through the LIN circuit. The keypad only works when touched with a finger. The keyless entry keypad may not work when gloves are worn. The gloves act as an insulator and do not allow the finger to change the sensor capacitance.

DDM or PDM

The DDM and the PDM monitor the door lock control switches and control the operation of the power windows and the power mirrors. They communicate with each other and the BCM over the CAN.

The DDM and PDM require PMI when replaced.

IKT (if equipped)

The IKT incorporates both the PATS and RKE transmitter functions in a single device.

During key programming procedures, the PATS and RKE transmitter Identification (ID) of a IKT are both programmed. See the Owner's Literature for maximum number of keys that can be programmed to the vehicle.

Passive Key (if equipped)

NOTE: Some brands/types of mobile phone or laptop computer chargers may cause interference that could lead to a PATS concern if the passive key (if equipped) is within close proximity of the charger. If a concern is observed, move the passive key (if equipped) away from the charger and attempt to turn the ignition on.

The passive key incorporates both the PATS and RKE transmitter functions in a single device.

During key programming procedures, the PATS and RKE transmitter Identification (ID) of a passive key (if equipped) are both programmed. See the Owner's Literature for maximum number of keys that can be programmed to the vehicle.

The passive key also contains a removable key blade that unlocks the driver door in the event of an electrical failure (such as a drained battery). The passive key requires 1 battery. They should always be replaced as a set. For battery replacement instructions, refer to the Owner's Literature.

To start the vehicle in the event of a passive key (if equipped) battery failure, place the passive key (if equipped) in the backup starting location.
Refer to: Passive Anti-Theft System (PATS) - System Operation and Component Description (419-01C Passive Anti-Theft System (PATS) - Vehicles With: Keyless Vehicle System, Description and Operation).

Exterior Front Door Handles

NOTE: Some brands/types of mobile phone or laptop computer chargers may cause interference that could lead to a PATS concern if the passive key (if equipped) is within a close proximity of the charge and the “No Key Detected” message displays in the message center. If a concern is observed, move the passive key (if equipped) away from the charger and attempt to transition the ignition on.

The exterior front door handles contain a keyless entry antenna and capacitive touch sensor(s). The antennas and lock/unlock sensors are wired to the BCM. When activated, the antenna transmits a low frequency signal to activate a passive key (if equipped).

Fuel Filler Door Release Switch (hybrid vehicles)

The fuel filler door release switch is integrated into the headlamp switch. It is supplied a voltage signal from the PCM for the fuel filler door release request. When the switch is pressed to release the fuel filler door, the input is routed to the return circuit, indicating a request to release the fuel filler door latch.

Fuel Filler Door Release Solenoid (hybrid vehicles)

The fuel filler door ajar switch is integrated into the fuel filler door release solenoid. The PCM monitors the fuel filler door ajar switch and if it detects a fault with the fuel filler release system, sends messages to the IPC to indicate a fault is detected.

Fuel Filler Door Lock (non-hybrid vehicles)

The fuel filler door lock activates in conjunction with the driver front door. When the driver front door is electronically locked or unlocked, the fuel filler door also locks or unlocks.

Keyless Entry Rear Antenna

NOTE: Some brands/types of mobile phone or laptop computer chargers may cause interference that could lead to a PATS concern if the passive key (if equipped) is within close proximity of the charge and the “No Key Detected” message displays in the message center. If a concern is observed, move the passive key (if equipped) away from the charger and attempt to transition the ignition on.

The keyless entry rear antenna is wired to the BCM. When activated, it transmits a low frequency signal to activate a passive key (if equipped).

RTM

The RTM communicates all RKE transmitter (if equipped) and passive key (if equipped) information to the BCM over a LIN-based circuit whether or not the CAN is active. The RTM is a receiving antenna that receives the high frequency signals from passive keys (if equipped).

The RTM requires PMI when replaced.

BCM

The BCM is the master module in control of the power door lock system. It is responsible for locking/unlocking the doors. The BCM receives inputs for the door lock control switches, keys and RKE transmitter (if equipped) commands over the CAN and LIN-based circuits.

When the BCM is replaced, carry out the PMI and the parameter reset procedures and program at least 2 keys.

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