Ford Explorer: Side and Rear Vision / Description and Operation - Blind Spot Information System - System Operation and Component Description

Ford Explorer 2020-2022 Service Manual / Electrical / Electronic Feature Group / Side and Rear Vision / Description and Operation - Blind Spot Information System - System Operation and Component Description

System Operation

BLIS® and CTA

System Diagram


Item Description
1 GWM
2 SCCM
3 HS-CAN1
4 HS-CAN2
5 HS-CAN3
6 IPC
7 PCM
8 DDM
9 PDM
10 MS-CAN
11 BCM
12 PAM
13 ACM
14 HS-CAN3
15 LH exterior mirror
16 LH BLIS®/ CTA LED
17 RH exterior mirror
18 RH BLIS®/ CTA LED
19 DSP module
20 SODR
21 SODL

Network Message Chart

  IPC Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Cross traffic alert left status   SODL Used to command the CTA audio chime and the BLIS® RTT.
Cross traffic alert right status   SODR
Side obstacle sensor status - left   SODL Used to communicate the operating status of the SODL and to command the BLIS®/ CTA message center displays.
Side obstacle sensor status - right   SODR Used to communicate the operating status of the SODR and to command the BLIS®/ CTA message center displays.

  ACM Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Chime source   IPC Used to command the CTA audio chimes on vehicles without Sony® audio system.

  DSP Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Chime source   IPC Used to command the CTA audio chimes on vehicles with Sony® audio system.

  DDM Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
BLIS®/ CTA LED command - left   SODL Used to command the LH BLIS®/ CTA LED on and off.

  PDM Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
BLIS®/ CTA LED command - right   SODR Used to command the RH BLIS®/ CTA LED on and off.

  SODL Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Active park assist system status   PAM Disables the CTA warnings during active park assist maneuvers.
BLIS®/ CTA enable/disable command   IPC Used to enable/disable the BLIS® or CTA based on driver input.
BLIS® driver LED status   DDM Used to confirm the operating status of the LH exterior mirror BLIS® LED.
Gear lever position   PCM Used to turn the BLIS® and CTA system on and off depending the gear lever position.
Ignition key type   BCM Used to disable the ability to turn OFF the BLIS® and CTA when a MyKey® restricted key is in use.
Turn signal status   SCCM Used to generate the secondary alert when a turn signal is activated.
Vehicle speed   PCM Used to activate the BLIS® after an ignition cycle and deactivate the CTA system when the vehicle speed exceeds preset thresholds.
VIN information   BCM Contains VIN information.
Wiper status   SCCM Used to determine ambient weather conditions for correct system operation.

  SODR Network Input Messages


Broadcast Message Originating Module Message Purpose
Active park assist system status   PAM Disables the CTA warnings during active park assist maneuvers.
BLIS®/ CTA enable/disable command   IPC Used to enable/disable the BLIS® or CTA based on driver input.
BLIS® passenger LED status   PDM Used to confirm the operating status of the RH exterior mirror BLIS® LED.
Gear lever position   PCM Used to turn the BLIS® and CTA system on and off depending the gear lever position.
Ignition key type   BCM Used to disable the ability to turn OFF the BLIS® and CTA when a MyKey® restricted key is in use.
Turn signal status   SCCM Used to generate the secondary alert when a turn signal is activated.
Vehicle speed   PCM Used to activate the BLIS® after an ignition cycle and deactivate the CTA system when the vehicle speed exceeds preset thresholds.
VIN information   BCM Contains VIN information.
Wiper status   SCCM Used to determine ambient weather conditions for correct system operation.

BLIS®

NOTE: If a trailer is connected to the vehicle, the BLIS® system may detect the trailer and cause a false alert.

The BLIS® provides alerts to the driver when the vehicle is in a forward gear and the vehicle speed is greater than 10 km/h (6 mph).

The BLIS® can trigger an alert for vehicles that enter the blind zone from the rear, front, or merge into the blind zone from the side. The exterior mirror BLIS®/ CTA LED illuminates in the right and/or left exterior mirror when a target is present. For vehicles that pass through the blind zone quickly, typically less than 2 seconds, the BLIS® may not trigger an alert.

If a turn signal is active while BLIS® has detected a target in the blind zone, the BLIS®/ CTA LED flashes rapidly. When the turn signal is off, the BLIS® target warnings are a constant LED illumination.

NOTE: The BLIS® is not intended to detect parked vehicles, pedestrians, or objects such as fences, guard rails or trees.

NOTE: There should be no bumper stickers or body filler material used on the rear side bumper cover in the vicinity of the SODL or SODR.

Due to the nature of radar technology, false alerts may occur under certain circumstances. False alerts occur when the LED illuminates with no target present. False alerts up to 3% (3 out of 100 targets) are considered normal operation. False alerts are temporary and self-correcting. False alerts may be caused by sharp turns around a pole or building, jogging pedestrians or fast moving shopping carts.

Missed targets occur when a target is present and the LED does not illuminate. Missed targets up to 1% (1 out of 100 targets) are considered normal operation.

Circumstances that cause missed alerts are:

  • Debris build-up or bumper stickers on the rear bumper sides
  • Certain maneuvering of the vehicles entering and exiting the blind zone
  • Vehicles passing through the blind zone at high rates of speed
  • When several vehicles forming a convoy pass through the blind zone

The BLIS® may not detect an adjacent target immediately when the vehicle accelerates from a standing start with another vehicle alongside.

CTA

NOTE: If a trailer is connected to the vehicle, the CTA system may detect the trailer and cause a false alert.

NOTE: The CTA system is only active when reverse gear is selected.

When the transmission is in reverse, the CTA system can detect a vehicle or a bicycle that is approaching at a speed between 8 km/h and 64 km/h (5 mph and 40 mph) and time to impact is between 1 and 2.5 seconds. The distance at which an alert is generated varies depending on the speed of the approaching vehicles or bicycles. The CTA system response time and performance can degrade if vehicles are approaching at speeds greater than 64 km/h (40 mph).

An adjacent parked vehicle or object can affect the systems ability to detect approaching vehicles or bicycles (refer to figure 1). Parking at extreme angles can further affect the systems ability to detect approaching vehicles or bicycles (refer to figure 2).

Backing towards a curved road can also affect systems ability to detect approaching vehicles or bicycles (refer to figure 3).

CTA detection zones:



The CTA system is designed to detect objects approaching the vehicle at a speed equal to or greater than 8 km/h (5 mph). This includes vehicles and bicycles. The CTA system has some detection limitations due to the nature of the radar technology used by the SODL and SODR.

NOTE: The CTA system is not intended to detect parked vehicles, pedestrians, or objects such as fences, guard rails or trees.

NOTE: There should be no bumper stickers or body filler material used on the rear side bumper cover in the vicinity of the SODL or SODR.

Circumstances that may cause non-detection are:

  • Debris build-up or bumper stickers on the rear bumper sides
  • The rear quarter panel of the vehicle is obstructed or partially obstructed by an adjacently parked vehicle or object
  • Vehicle approaching at speeds greater than 64 km/h (40 mph)
  • Driving in reverse faster than 12 km/h (8 mph)
  • Damage to sensor and/or sensor area

Due to the nature of radar technology, there may be certain instances when the CTA system alerts the operator, when no object or vehicle is present while backing up. This is known as a false alert. False alerts up to 3% of the time (3 times out of 100 reversals) are considered normal. A false alert may occur when backing out of a garage or backing into a parking space and objects or vehicles are very close to the radar sensors. False alerts are temporary and self-correcting.

Missed targets occur when a target is present and the LED does not illuminate. Missed targets up to 1% (1 out of 100 targets) is considered normal operation.

Circumstances that cause missed alerts are:

  • Debris build-up or bumper stickers on the rear bumper sides
  • Certain maneuvering of the vehicles entering and exiting the detection zone
  • Vehicles passing through the detection zone at high rates of speed
  • When several vehicles forming a convoy pass through the detection zone

Reverse Brake Assist

The reverse brake assist feature is not a standalone system. This feature utilizes multiple systems and modules for operation.

The rear parking aid camera and rear park aid system are controlled by the IPMB, which is on the HS-CAN2 network. This module determines the reverse brake assist status, detects and identifies objects using the camera and rear park aid sensors, and determines if a collision is likely and provides a deceleration request to the ABS module.

The BLIS uses the side obstacle detection control module radar sensors to detect an object, identifies the object and also determines if a collision is likely. These sensors communicate on the MS-CAN and the messages are sent to the IPMB though the gateway module.

The ABS is utilized to apply the brakes to avoid a collision and provide brake status. The ABS module communicates on the HS-CAN2.

The APIM is utilized to enable and disable the reverse brake assist feature. It also displays alerts on the FDIM. The APIM is on the HS-CAN3. The IPC, which is also on the HS-CAN3, displays alerts and notifications in the message center during a reverse brake assist event.

The PCM, BCM and TRM all provide vehicle status for the reverse brake assist feature. The TRM gives a status of whether a trailer is plugged in and connected to the vehicle. The BCM provides the status of the liftgate, ignition status and determining if the vehicle is in transport or factory mode. The PCM provides the status of vehicle speed, gear position, steering angle and throttle position. All of these are inputs that allow the reverse brake assist feature to operate.

If this feature is inoperative, it is due to one of the vehicle systems that it uses for this feature. For further information on the systems that are utilized, refer to the appropriate system operation section in the workshop manual.

Exterior Mirror Indication

When the BLIS® or CTA system is active and an object is detected by the SODL or SODR, the BLIS®/ CTA LED command message is sent from the SODL or SODR to the DDM or PDM. The DDM and PDM supply voltage and ground to illuminate their respective exterior mirror BLIS®/ CTA LED based on messages received from the SODL and SODR.

Each time the vehicle is started, the SODL and SODR command the DDM and PDM to illuminate the exterior mirror BLIS®/ CTA Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for approximately 3 seconds, indicating the BLIS® and CTA system is operational.

If a BLIS® or CTA system fault is present, the exterior mirror BLIS®/ CTA Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) remain off, the IPC BLIS® RTT illuminates and a message center warning displays BLIND SPOT SYSTEM FAULT.

BLIS® and CTA Message Center Function

NOTE: CTA system faults may not be detected until the transmission is placed in reverse.

NOTE: The BLIS® and CTA system menus in the message center are not available when a MyKey® restricted key is in use.

The BLIS® can be turned off by using the blind spot on/off function in the message center. When the BLIS® has been turned off by the driver or if a system fault is present, the BLIS® RTT in the message center remains on. When turning the system on or off, the exterior mirror Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) flash 2 times. When the BLIS® is turned off, the driver cannot receive any alerts. The system remains off until turned back on by the driver.

The CTA system can be turned off by selecting the CTA system on/off function in the message center. The system defaults to on with each ignition cycle.

There are some system faults that set Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) in the SODL, SODR, DDM or PDM. These Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) can set a message in the IPC message center that displays BLIND SPOT SYSTEM FAULT and/or CROSS TRAFFIC SYSTEM FAULT. There are also symptom based faults that do not set a DTC.

Blocked Sensor

NOTE: Blockage sensing becomes active after the wipers are activated.

NOTE: A blocked state is not a system fault. A blocked state is a normal mode of operation under blocked conditions.

An excessive build-up of materials on the rear bumper sides, such as mud or snow, can cause the BLIS® or CTA system functionality to degrade. Heavy rain can have the same affect on the system. If a blocked state is detected, the SODL and SODR blockage sensing senses the performance degradation and enters the SODL and SODR into a blocked state. The performance degradation means alerting late on targets or additional missed targets. Upon entering a blocked state, the SODL and/or SODR send a status message over the MS-CAN to the GWM. The GWM then sends the status message to the IPC on the HS-CAN3. The message center displays BLIND SPOT NOT AVAILABLE SENSOR BLOCKED or CROSS TRAFFIC NOT AVAILABLE SENSOR BLOCKED and the LH and RH exterior mirror BLIS®/ CTA Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) illuminate.

The message center warning can be cleared by the driver, but the amber BLIS® off RTT in the IPC remains illuminated. A blocked state will self-clear when blockage sensing senses performance has returned to normal operation. The ignition can also be cycled off to clear the blocked state. If the blockage is still present after the ignition cycle, or after some drive time the system detects again that it is blocked, the blocked sensor message is displayed again in the message center and the amber BLIS® off IPC RTT is illuminated again.

Due to the nature of a radar technology, it is possible to get a blocked sensor warning without the radar sensor being blocked. This is rare and is known as a false blockage warning. A false blocked condition either self-clears or clears after an ignition cycle.

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